Furthermore, the disparity in the access to valuable information about methods that can be use prevent or control the spread of disease may vary across countries. HSC 2017, Q25 NOTE: This section will be covering next week’s notes which is about the adaptive immune response (third line of defence). Module 8. This is because the chances of encountering new people everyday is more common for individuals living in highly populated regions than those living in more secluded areas. These phagocytes will move into the lymph (fluid) whereby they will encounter lymphocytes stored in the lymph node. Ensuring, monitoring and supply of clean water supply. The activated helper T cells will also secrete cytokine molecules that activates B lymphocytes, causing them to divide and differentiate into plasma cells and memory B cells. That is, it does not operate differently based on the type of pathogen that is present. Another example is that individuals that live in more isolated regions would mean that they will come in contact with less infected individuals compared to those living in the city. We have already talked about the role of these T cells earlier. Forums. Find out in our exclusive HSC Trial Exam Revision study guides – a new publication written, reviewed and published by the same teachers who will be marking your HSC exams! Exogenous antigens are basically found on the invading pathogen itself. pathogen). specialised white blood cells) that is responsible for phagocytosis. Overview of Week 8’s Inquiry Question – How do we systematically name organic chemical compounds? P.S: Cultural knowledge are those pertaining to the cultural practices of Aboriginal people including the knowledge related to or passed via the Aboriginal People heritage. As our blood is hot, this increased blood flow to the site of infection would increase the temperature of the environment surrounding the infected cells at the infected site. New posts Search forums. Module 7 has been updated to have a focus on infectious diseases like influenza, Staph infections and many others.. Keep reading to get a breakdown of some changes to the syllabus/module, an outline of the topics and some tips and tricks so you can ACE Biology!. These facilitates should also be located at a minimum distance of 50 metres from any treatment ward or shelter. You should also wash your hair and shower regularly to prevent the accumulation of pathogens. NOTE: There are many more of these microbe-associated molecule patterns that plants may recognise but we, humans, have not yet discovered. A 2014 case study that involved over using 24,000 patients’ data has revealed that: The incidence of influenza spreading from an infected family member to unaffected members are reduced in households. 1 Module 7: Infectious Disease. Instead, we will explore few more examples that you can incorporate in your response for higher mark questions. Let’s now have a look at the main vectors that are responsible for epidemics. The first line of defence involves the physical and chemical barriers that helps to stop further entry, growth and reproduction of invading pathogens. As a result, the Aboriginal People may not receive the recognition or monetary benefit that they otherwise could have. beta glucans), the protease protein is produced as a response to inhibit the effectors molecules produced by the fungi’s hyphae and stop the growth of the pathogen. Gingivitis is the accumulation of bacteria in the mouth which is very brushing teeth and mouthwash are products used to maintain personal hygiene. Aboriginal Protocol: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples also used yellow ochre (hydrated iron hydroxide) to treat stomach upsets. NOTE: Morbidity rate refers to the occurrence of the disease which includes both incidence and prevalence rates. This is passive as the adaptive immune system is not triggered. Guides. phagocytosis). One example of a public health campaign are the government regulations established to: Convey the appropriate requirements of potable (drinkable) water exiting the water treatment plant that is supplied to households and factories. lowering the duration of disease). The first layer involves different types of phagocytes surrounding the infected cells. The process of submitting a patent claim is expensive and may not be affordable for individuals such as a single Aboriginal person. There are three alleles of the B gene: B, B+, and Bo. These revision lessons are held for every module. When memory B cells are activated by the same antigen (e.g. This would results in apoptosis. Start studying Biology HSC Module 7: Infectious Disease. Public Health Campaigns are advertised and/or provided to the public to convey a health message and generate a desire from the target audience. However, due to the inevitable development of resistance by the pesticides, pesticides’ negative impact on human health and the environment, alternative solutions are currently being researched. Related products. The pause in protein synthesis result in the bacteria of the new generation not having the required protein or enzymes to invade cells. Production & secretion of antimicrobial molecules such as nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Infectious diseases. 7.1 Two identical twins have exactly the same set of genes. The treatment centre should have appropriate space to accomodate number of affected people residing inside. Name the TWO components labelled A and B. This risk analysis can also be performed when there is a new import category or item that has not been approved in the past. Again, like all other defence mechanisms that makes up to the second line of defence, the inflammation response is non-specific to an antigen or a pathogen. However, an alternative study performed by ‘The Lancet’ with 4328 participants in 2015 revealed that patients supplied with antiviral provided a 21% faster recovery time compared to patients without. NOTE: Remember Robert Koch? The 40 days allows an appropriate timeframe to allow symptoms of a disease to develop and sufficient time for handling the disease. Herbal, saltwater, etc) vs pharmaceutical drugs to treat Influenza. Hefty fines and jail sentence periods have been stated to dissuade humans carrying or sneaking prohibited items into Australia. These problems relating cultural knowledge and intellectual property rights are explored in the next section. There are 57 lessons in the HSC Study Lab Year 12 Biology course, which corresponds to the 120 indicative hours of study required by the syllabus. The organisation of food storage in the treatment centre could be stored in warehouses that are shielded from vectors such as rats, insects and birds. The Aboriginal people also did not receive money when product derived from the plant is sold. The DDT insecticide was used kill Anopheles Mosquito that is a vector for the malaria disease as it carries the plasmodium pathogen. Etc … Please review the previous section about ‘T Lymphocytes’ to review on all other activities. Menu. Lastly, we have antibodies which we have already discussed in the above ‘B lymphocytes’ section. The antiviral did not cut down the amount of people that required hospitalisation. They are separated at birth and grow up in different households. Both forms of passively acquired immunity is short-lived, i.e. So, inflammation responses occur at sites of infection. The moist and nutrient-rich environment of the mucus membranes are able to support the growth of natural, beneficial microbes that produces chemicals capable of hindering the growth and entrance of pathogen. NOTE: We will learn the difference between incidence and prevalence in Learning Objective #5 in this week’s notes. As a result of this, the site of infection appears to be red and swollen (and hot). Module C: The Craft of Writing, was introduced from the 2019 HSC by NESA to ensure students develop the skills to become better writers, it all stops students memorising responses. There are also benefits in producing transgenic animals which produces proteins that grants resistance against diseases which we can extract. It doesn’t really matter. The physiological defence adaptations that makes up the second line of defence include: Cell death to seal off pathogens & Antigens. Here, beta-glucan is a type of microbe-associated molecule pattern. The success in reducing the cases people having tuberculosis led to the closure of many sanatoria establishments which saved a lot of government funding. This high level of acidic is able to dissolve pathogens or mucus that contains any trapped pathogens. It explores the application of biology and its significance in finding solutions to health and sustainability issues in a changing world. Yes, if you experience a cut, your blood will clot due to the presence of platelets in your blood. Home. A model of enzyme activity is shown. The antigen is digested upon combination of phagocyte with lysosome whereby the lysosome secretes lysozymes as we have mentioned earlier in the second line of defence. The lymphocyte may have surface receptor proteins that matches with the protruding antigen which the phagocyte engulfed. T lymphocytes have a surface receptor protein that can recognise a specific antigen. Learning Objective #1 – Investigate the nomenclature of organic chemicals, up to C8, using IUPAC conventions, including simple methyl and ethyl branched chains, including: alkanes; alkenes However, they are not longer supplied as the circulating virus is now resistant to those antiviral drugs due to overuse. The Commonwealth Copyright Act also contains a ‘loophole’ in the case of intellectual property. accidentally brush your arm across your mouth) resulting in diseases like Influenza. Overall, more clinical trials must be performed to determine the effectiveness of the antiviral drugs in controlling the disease, eliminate mixed results and arrive to decisive answer about whether the drug is effective at controlling the disease (e.g. EasyHSC is a free online resource for students studying the NSW HSC. Most of the context of the workshop will be built around Module 5 and the Working Scientifically skills. T cells are also stored in lymphatic tissues in the spleen, thymus, tonsils and liver. Notes & Resources. Get our latest COVID-19 advice. antiseptic and bandaid). The Aboriginal Peoples demonstrated their technique or protocols (method) of using substances in specific fruits and plants, as bush medicine, to meet their specific medicinal needs. NOTE: There are more memory T cells than Helper T cells which is why the secondary exposure to the same pathogen (with same antigen) is quicker than when the individually exposed to the pathogen for the first time. New posts New resources New profile posts Latest activity. For example, in Module 6, we have talked about how Bt Corn and Bt Cotton are transgenic crops are capable of manufacturing insecticide that kills pests that it makes contact with that may be carrying a pathogen. What's new. Similar to antibiotic resistance, viruses can also develop resistance to antiviral drugs. Environmental manipulation – Temporary changes to vector habitats involving the management of “essential” containers, such as: Frequent emptying and cleaning by scrubbing of water-storage vessels, flower vases and desert room coolers. Some examples of modern methods of predicting the disease includes those that we already learnt: DNA profiling, as we have discussed in Module 6, allows us to see the short tandem repeats responsible for a particular disease. Below are 20 practice questions for the Common Module Paper 1. Comparatively, the recovery time for patients supplied with and not supplied with Zanamivir was from 6.6 days to 6 days. Some of these are: Exotic live plant material from airplane passengers, ship cargo, etc. Upon maturation, the cells are released into the bloodstream whereby it is transported into the lymph vessel and stored in the lymph nodes. NOTE: When asked about plants’ response to VIRUS PATHOGENS, you can use the same notes about general-induced and specific-induced immunity response as explored previous section. These can occur at various areas such as airports, piers and mail exchangers. Actively acquired immunity exists in two categories, these being Natural or Induced. Phagocytosis can be defined as the defence mechanism whereby phagocytes modify to their shape to envelope or enclose a non-specific antigen (e.g. (2 marks) Question 2. We will provide you a named example of virus affecting a plant that you can use in your exams. The final layer is made up of fibre cells to consolidate and envelope the structure. There are many quarantine strategies that has been put into place, including: All humans crossing the Australian border are checked if they are carrying pests or contracted with diseases. In the case of T-cells, we mentioned that they are produced in the bone marrow but mature in the thymus gland. Beta thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder that reduces the body’s production of haemoglobin. However, that’s not an excuse to not maintain noice, smooth, healthy skin. The specific-induced immunity response involves resistance proteins recognising the antigen which triggers responses via a signalling pathway. Content 1 Content 2 Content 3 Content 4. The next outer layer is comprised of lymphocytes surrounding the phagocytes. On top of dilating the blood vessels, histamine also increases the permeability of capillaries which allows more white blood cells to move to the infected cells. 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