Conceptualization, Perrin, Larkham and Culwin define plagiarism as the use of an author's words, ideas, reflections and thoughts without proper acknowledgment of the author [13]. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Indeed, the Internet grants easy access to an enormous amount of knowledge and learning materials. These are fully assigned to the central government to enable it to finance universalized basic education. noted that individual factors (e.g. Slight reductions in voltage levels may permit many electronics to perform perfectly well while minimizing their temperature. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. The second subset is composed of pressure and pride, in order from highest to lowest (groups 5 and 6). Frequent episodes of mild overheating can result in the same amount of component damage as a few episodes of severe overheating. Just like the Slovene students, for the German students ICT and the Web were detected as the dominant factors influencing plagiarism. e0202252. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202252.t003. The differences are significant (t = 4.827, p = .000). Both also think that teachers do not read students assignments. It seems that the Slovene students (M = 2.35, SD = 0.63) attribute greater importance to regulation reasons than the German students (M = 2.05, SD = 0.61). Save NX files as STL, 3DS, OBJ, Image (BMP/JPG/PNG/TIFF). According to Ramzan et al., Dawson and Overfield determined that students are aware that plagiarism is bad but that they are not clear on what constitutes plagiarism and how to avoid it [21, 38]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202252.s001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202252.s002, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202252.s003, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202252.s004, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202252.s005, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202252.s006, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202252.s007, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202252.s008, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202252.s009. According to Fishman, Plagiarism occurs when someone: 1) uses words, ideas, or work products; 2) attributable to another identifiable person or source; 3) without attributing the work to the source from which it was obtained; 4) in a situation in which there is a legitimate expectation of original authorship; 5) in order to obtain some benefit, credit, or gain which need not be monetary [5]. Plagiarism is a highly complex phenomenon and, as such, it is likely that there is no single explanation for why individuals engage in plagiarist behaviours [10]. Writing original draft, There is a point where the voltage level supplied can be so high as to damage a motor but this level is far higher than that for electronics. No, Is the Subject Area "Slovenian people" applicable to this article? Eastern societies are generally high context societies, meaning that people in Eastern societies put strong emphasis on relational concerns, and decisions are based on personal relationships. Indeed, in Germany, the focus should rest on the implementation and publication of a code of ethics, and on training students to deal with pressure. More than half (58.5%) of the German participants were social sciences students, 32% were technical sciences students and 2% were natural sciences students. Motors can, on the other hand, often benefit from voltages that tend to be a little bit high. Citation: Jereb E, Perc M, Lmmlein B, Jerebic J, Urh M, Podbregar I, et al. Overall though, the findings for both the German students and the Slovene students are in line with e.g. Over the past decades, plagiarism has been classified as a multi-layer phenomenon of dishonesty that occurs in higher education. Used to $ Cuisinart Griddler Deluxe Stainless Steel - Take all-year grilling to new heights with the Griddler Deluxe from Cuisinart. 11 talking about this. The only significant difference between the students of technical sciences and the students of natural sciences was confirmed for statement 5.6 (there were higher average values of responses for the students of technical sciences). With in-depth features, Expatica brings the international community closer together. Consequently, the average values (means) of the responses to the statements 1.4, 1.5 and 1.8 are not significantly different. There are significant differences (t = -3.522, p = .000) between the Slovene and German students regarding pressure, whereas the German students (M = 2.71, SD = 0.91) attribute greater importance to this reason than the Slovene students (M = 2.42, SD = 0.86). Our research draws on students from two universities from the two considered countries that cover all traditional subjects of study. Department of Economics and Law, Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Frankfurt, Germany, Roles An academic moral panic has been caused by the arrival in higher education of a new generation of younger students [39], deemed to be digital natives [40] and allegedly endowed with an inherent ability for using information-communication technologies (ICT). Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia; School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China, Roles This result is also found in other studies, namely those of prajc et al. Today, universities in Slovenia use a variety of tools (Turnitin, plagiarism plug-ins for Moodle, plagiarisma.net, etc.) For example, it seems like in Slovenia, teaching factors have a greater influence on plagiarism than in Germany. Writing original draft, An international comparison between German and Slovene students was made. Many ranking agencies release the list of these colleges rank wise every year. in order to detect plagiarism. According to the top line of Figure 12.5, on average, full-time, full-year employed women in the United States today earned 2000 about ____ percent of what full-time full-year employed men earn (use a straight object, like a pencil, ruler, or a book spine, etc. Other factors influencing plagiarising are temptation and opportunity. For German students, only technical and social sciences were considered because of the low number of natural sciences students. Play helps a child develop a sense of true self and a mastery over her/his innate abilities resulting in a sense of worth and aptitude. A number of research papers have identified a host of factors such as gender, socialisation, efficiency gain, motivation for study, methodological uncertainties or easy access to electronic information via the Internet and new technologies, as reasons driving plagiarism. prajc et al. Ramzan et al. Supervision, But why do students use someone else's words or ideas and pass them on as their own? Park states genuine lack of understanding as one of the reasons for plagiarism. Students with lower motivation for study (M = 5.24, SD = 4.84) on average spent more time on the Internet than those with higher motivation for study (M = 3.76, SD = 3.27). Students were verbally informed of the nature of the research and invited to freely participate. Given students' ease of access to both digital information and sophisticated digital technologies, several researchers have noted that students may be more likely to ignore academic ethics and to engage in plagiarism than would otherwise be the case [24]. Park pointed out that one reason for plagiarism is efficiency gain [11]. The differences are significant (t = -3.032, p = .003). AFS was available at afs.msu.edu an About 33% of the surveyed students spend on average two or less hours a day on the Internet, and about one quarter spend on average more than five hours a day on the Internet. In Germany, there has been ongoing reflection on academic plagiarism and other dishonest research practices since the late 19th century [8]. More than motors and circuit boards are at risk for damage when voltage levels are bad, but chronic problems with either is often an indication of a voltage problem. The average values of the responses for all the other statements (1.1, 1.7, 1.6, 1.2, and 1.3 listed in the descending order of sample means) are significantly lower. According to Jean Piaget, "play provides the child with the live, dynamic, individual language indispensable for the expression of [the childs] subjective feelings for which collective language alone is inadequate." The third subset consists of pride, teaching factors and other reasons, respectively (groups 6, 4 and 7). According to Park to some students, plagiarism is a tangible way of showing dissent and expressing a lack of respect for authority [11]. The test was significant, t = -2.064, p = .004. Although people with a lower level of education in low-income and middle-income countries have higher incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease, they have better overall risk factor profiles. Furthermore, the results could be a starting point for additional comparative studies between different European regions. Lack of knowledge and uncertainties about methodologies are additional factors that are frequently recognized as reasons for plagiarism [11, 17, 18]. According to this literature review and our experiences in higher education teaching, we determined that the following factors influence plagiarism: students individual factors, information-communication technologies (ICT) and the Web, regulation, students academic skills, teaching factors, different forms of pressure, student pride, and other reasons. The second subset consists of teaching factors (group 4). New students and international students whose first language is not English need to transition to the research culture by understanding the necessity of doing research, and the practice and skills required to do so, in order to avoid unintentional plagiarism [21]. We conducted an Independent Samples t-test to compare the average time (in hours) spent per day on the Internet by the Slovene students with that of the German students. Another common reason for plagiarism is the poor preparation of lecture notes, which can lead to the inadequate referencing of texts [32]. The study of Jereb et al. and Hard et al. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Research in Organizational Sciences at Faculty of Organizational Sciences University of Maribor. In order to deal with plagiarism, teachers want and need a clear set of policies regarding detection tools, and extensive training in the use of detection software and systems. The damage caused by overheating is cumulative and irreversible. In addition, as Koul et al. Formal analysis, The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic will be remembered for the rapidity with which it spread, the morbidity and mortality associated with it, and the paucity of evidence-based management guidelines. More than two thirds (68.9%) of the Slovene students were highly motivated for study and 31.1% less so; 32.6% of the students spend 2 or fewer hours per day on the Internet, 41.6% spend between 2 and 5 hours on the Internet, and 25.8% spend 5 or more hours on the Internet per day. here. Save STEP files as STL, 3DS, OBJ, Image (BMP/JPG/PNG/TIFF). Funding acquisition, GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. Find A+ essays, research papers, book notes, course notes and writing tips. Writing original draft, Roles No other pairs of group means were significantly different. Giluk and Postlethwaite also related individual characteristics and situational factors to cheatingindividual characteristics such as gender, age, ability, personality, and extracurricular involvement; and situational factors such as honour codes, penalties, and risk of detection [13]. Many of those who teach in higher education have encountered the phenomenon of plagiarism as a form of dishonesty in the classroom. also revealed that the societal and family pressures of getting higher grades influence plagiarism [21]. Park also claimed that one of the reasons that students plagiarise is efficiency gain, that is, that students plagiarise in order to get a better grade and save time [11]. This younger generation is dubbed Generation Me [41], and it is believed that their expectations, interactions and learning processes have been affected by ICT. Funding acquisition, Since the majority of the students in our study believe that new technologies and the Web have a strong influence on plagiarism, we can assume that technological progress and globalisation has started breaking down national frontiers and crossing cultural boundaries. 39 Likes, 2 Comments - Stanford Family Medicine (@stanfordfmrp) on Instagram: Congratulations to our residents Grace and Jenny on completing their first rotation as intern and Finally, the last subset consists of regulation (group 2). They were higher for students with lower motivation for both groups of students, except in the case of statements 2.1 and 6.6 for Slovene students. A number of studies from around the world have shown that men more frequently plagiarise than women do. The focus of this research is to investigate the factors influencing plagiarism and if there are any differences between Slovene and German students factors influencing plagiarising. The questionnaire contained closed questions referring to: (i) general/individual data (gender, age, area of study, method of study, working status, scholarship, motivation for study, average time spent on the internet), and factors influencing plagiarism (ii) ICT and Web, (iii) regulation, (iv) academic skills, (v) teaching factors, (vi) pressure, (vii) pride, (viii) other reasons. also revealed that specific individual characteristics pertaining to men and women influence plagiarism [14]. No, Is the Subject Area "Technology regulations" applicable to this article? Bloomberg delivers business and markets news, data, analysis, and video to the world, featuring stories from Businessweek and Bloomberg News on everything pertaining to politics Among German students, the pressure and pride in the second and third places in terms of importance are mostly reflected, which does not lag behind the mention of the author Rothenberg stated that in Germany today pride could be expressed for individual accomplishments [50]. On this basis, we want to expose the way of non-plagiarism promotion to be developed in a way that will be more acceptable and more understandable in each country and adequately controlled on a personal and institutional level. It seems that the Slovene students (M = 3.69, SD = 0.56) attribute greater importance to the ICT and Web reasons than the German students (M = 3.47, SD = 0.55). The rule of thumb for motors is for every 10 degrees C (50 degrees F) a motor is operated above its rated temperature, motor life will be decreased by 50%. Writing original draft, Furthermore, several studies have implied that individual characteristics, especially gender, play an important role when it comes to plagiarism [12, 13, 15, 16]. Aside from the numerous cases of plagiarism detected in academic work since 2011, several initiatives have enriched the debate on academic plagiarism. as another reason for plagiarism [11]. Some students cheat because they have negative attitudes towards assignments and tasks that teachers believe to have meaning but that they dont [33]. The fourth subset is composed of other reasons, pride, pressure, and regulation, respectively (groups 7, 6, 5 and 2). In particular, further research into the influence of digitalization and the Web on plagiarism, and the role of socialisation and gender factors on plagiarism, could contribute to the discourse on plagiarism in higher education institutions. academic skills demonstrate students lack of knowledge. They were higher for the students of technical sciences than for the students of social sciences. More than half of the Slovene students (61.6%) were working at the time of the study, and 39.8% of all participants had scholarships. The general data can be seen in S1 Table. Resources, circuit boards) due to overheating. The German students showed a somewhat higher level of motivation to study than the Slovene students, but the difference is not statistically significant. About 15 years after this statement, the study at hand is empirical evidence that efficiency gain due to different forms of pressure is still a factor that influences students behaviour in terms of plagiarism. 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